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3. Analysis in I-DEAS

In this section you will prepare the model in a way that it can then be solved by the software.

Switch to the task Boundary Conditions. In this task, you will set up the forces acting on the wheel.

Figure 1.37
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Click on the first icon in the Palette, Linear Statics, so as to set up the problem as linear, as opposed to time-dependent (non-linear statics) or the like.

Figure 1.38
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In the upcoming dialog, accept all defaults by hitting OK.

Figure 1.39
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You will now apply a pressure on the surface that interfaces with the tire at the bottom of the wheel, so as to simulate the force of the street acting on the tire and further acting on the wheel. With your mouse, move over the region of the model that shows the surface in question. You may need to zoom and tumble, until you are able to unambiguously highlight the surface, which you have previously separated in StudioTools. Select the surface by clicking on it with your left mouse button, as shown in Figure 4.

Note: If you accidentally select the wrong surface, you can unselect it by moving your mouse cursor into the black background region and clicking on your left mouse button.

Figure 1.40
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To apply pressure, click on the icon that features a bold P, as shown in Figure 1.41.

Figure 1.41
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In the upcoming dialog, change the selection from Intensity (Force/Area) to Total Force. This simplifies the problem conceptually, as we have a rough idea of how much force is acting upon the entire wheel, as opposed to a unit area.

Next, if not already selected, choose N (newton) from the Amplitude list of units.

Finally, enter the magnitude of the force; in this tutorial, we will apply a force of 3000 Newtons. This roughly corresponds to 300 kg for one wheel. We will argue that our motorcycle wheels experience a total of 600kg, including the rider, which is a reasonable and realistic assumption. (see Table 1.1)

Hit OK to apply the pressure.

Figure 1.42
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Table 1 features a comparison of weights for different automobiles and motorcycles. The assumption that a single wheel of a motorcycle will experience a weight of 300kg is reasonable as it appears to be at least twice the average weight. It is always better to overestimate the weight, so as to refrain from performing an analysis in the border region between actual and slightly more than expected.

Type of vehicle Weight with Rider (kg)
Automobile
Compact 960
Medium Sized 1,415
High Powered 1,570
Sportscar 1,515
High-Speed Sportscar 1,500
Motorcycle
Low Powered 215
Medium Powered 272
High Powered 300
Superbike 265
Table 1.1
Blue arrows denote the applied pressure. The arrows must be pointing towards the center of the wheel. If they do not, you should either re-evaluate the model, or merely apply the negative pressure. In any case, you may wish to consult with the instructor, if the arrows are not pointing in the right direction.

Figure 1.43
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Next, you will apply a displacement restraint to the hub of the wheel. To this end, select the cylindrical hub of the wheel. You may again wish to zoom and tumble until you are able to unambiguously select the surface in question.

Figure 1.44
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To apply the displacement restraint, select the icon that features a triangle, as shown in Figure 1.45.

Figure 1.45
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In the upcoming dialog, you will notice that all values are set to 0 (zero), and their type is constant. You will not need to make any changes. These settings will pin down the hub of the wheel, so that regardless of the force acting on the other parts of the wheel, the hub never moves. On a motorcycle, this is principally true, if we're only considering the wheel itself. The wheel is attached to an axle, which in turn may move (displace), but the hub itself does not move relative to the axle, unless the wheel detaches during the ride, in which case this analysis won't matter anymore anyway.

Hit OK to accept the default values.

Figure 1.46
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Arrows of different color and direction denote the displcement restraint.

Figure 1.47
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You will now switch to the Meshing task, in which the model is broken down into much smaller entities, which are then used to calculate displacement, stress, etc. of the entire model.

Figure 1.48
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Typically, we would first define a mesh size, which is the size of the elements into which the wheel breaks down to. However, I-DEAS will figure out a reasonable default size.

We thus proceed to generating the mesh. Select the arrow next to the third icon, as shown in Figure 1.49.

Figure 1.49
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In the expanded list of icons, select Solid Mesh
Figure 1.50
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Again you will select the entire model by moving the mouse cursor into the visualization frame, and clicking the right mouse button. In the upcoming list of options, select All done.

Figure 1.51
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I-DEAS will now start the meshing process. Once it is finished, a list of options appear, asking you whether ot not to accept the mesh. Hit Yes.

Figure 1.52
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You have now meshed the wheel. Make sure that the entire wheel is meshed, and not just a section of it, e.g. the hub.

Figure 1.53
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Next, you will define a material for this wheel. Click on the icon that features 3 symbols from the periodic table of elements, as shown in Figure 1.54.

Figure 1.54
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You will notice that only one material is available, named GENERIC_ISOTROPIC_STEEL. While you may wish to build your wheel from different materials, we will use steel to simplify the analysis. Regardless of the material used, the properties of stress and displacement hold true regardless of material insofar that weak spots in the structure do not change. Hence, we will be able to extract this information from the analysis regardless of material.

Feel free to experiment with creating new materials.

Select the material from the list, and hit OK.

Figure 1.55
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You will now switch to the Model Solution task, so as to set up solutions of interest.

Figure 1.56
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Click on the first icon, Linear, so as to define a linear solution, as shown in Figure 1.57.

Figure 1.57
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Next, you will create a solution set. Click on the second icon, as shown in Figure 1.58.

Figure 1.58
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In the upcoming dialog, click on the button Create.

Figure 1.59
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In the next upcoming dialog, click on the blue-colored icon, as shown in Figure 1.60.

Figure 1.60
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In the following dialog, make sure that LOAD SET 1 is selected in the list of Load Sets, and click OK on all three dialogs.

Figure 1.61
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You will now initiate the solution process. Click on the arrow next to the icon featuring a green arrow pointing to the right, as shown in Figure 1.62.

Figure 1.62
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In the expanded list of icons, select Solve to start the solution computation.

Figure 1.63
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I-DEAS will now switch applications. In the upcoming dialog hit Dismiss.

Figure 1.64
If there are no errors in the model, I-DEAS will now start computing. A graph like the one in Figure 1.65 show the progress.

Figure 1.65
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Once the solution has been generated, I-DEAS will switch back to the previous application. In the upcoming dialog hit Dismiss.

Figure 1.66