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Making a Connection

In making a connection, the client makes a connection while the server waits for and accepts the connection. Here we discuss what the client program must do, using the connect function, which is declared in `sys/socket.h'.

Function: int connect (int socket, struct sockaddr *addr, size_t length)

The connect function initiates a connection from the socket with file descriptor socket to the socket whose address is specified by the addr and length arguments. (This socket is typically on another machine, and it must be already set up as a server.) See section Socket Addresses, for information about how these arguments are interpreted.

Normally, connect waits until the server responds to the request before it returns. You can set nonblocking mode on the socket socket to make connect return immediately without waiting for the response. See section File Status Flags, for information about nonblocking mode.

The normal return value from connect is 0. If an error occurs, connect returns -1. The following errno error conditions are defined for this function:

EBADF
The socket socket is not a valid file descriptor.

ENOTSOCK
The socket socket is not a socket.

EADDRNOTAVAIL
The specified address is not available on the remote machine.

EAFNOSUPPORT
The namespace of the addr is not supported by this socket.

EISCONN
The socket socket is already connected.

ETIMEDOUT
The attempt to establish the connection timed out.

ECONNREFUSED
The server has actively refused to establish the connection.

ENETUNREACH
The network of the given addr isn't reachable from this host.

EADDRINUSE
The socket address of the given addr is already in use.

EINPROGRESS
The socket socket is non-blocking and the connection could not be established immediately.

EALREADY
The socket socket is non-blocking and already has a pending connection in progress.

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