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Concept Index

4

  • 4.n BSD Unix

    _

  • _POSIX_OPTION_ORDER environment variable.

    a

  • abort signal
  • aborting a program
  • absolute file name
  • absolute value functions
  • accepting connections
  • access permission for a file
  • access, testing for
  • accessing directories
  • address of socket
  • alarm signal
  • alarms, setting
  • alignment (in obstacks)
  • alignment (with malloc)
  • alloca disadvantages
  • alloca function
  • allocation (obstacks)
  • allocation hooks, for malloc
  • allocation of memory with malloc
  • allocation size of string
  • allocation statistics
  • alphabetic character
  • alphanumeric character
  • ANSI C
  • append mode (file status flag)
  • append-access files
  • argc (program argument count)
  • argument promotion
  • arguments (variadic functions)
  • arguments, how many
  • argv (program argument vector)
  • arithmetic expansion
  • array comparison functions
  • array copy functions
  • array search function
  • array sort function
  • ASCII character
  • assertions
  • attributes of a file
  • automatic allocation
  • automatic freeing
  • automatic storage with variable size

    b

  • background job
  • background job, launching
  • base (of floating point number)
  • basic byte sequence
  • baud rate
  • Berkeley Unix
  • bias (of floating point number exponent)
  • big-endian
  • binary I/O to a stream
  • binary search function (for arrays)
  • binary stream
  • binding a socket address
  • blank character
  • block I/O to a stream
  • blocked signals
  • blocked signals, checking for
  • blocking signals
  • blocking signals, in a handler
  • break condition, detecting
  • break condition, generating
  • breaking a string into tokens
  • broken pipe signal
  • broken-down time
  • BSD compatibility library
  • BSD compatibility library.
  • BSD Unix
  • buffering of streams
  • buffering, controlling
  • bus error
  • byte order conversion, for socket
  • byte stream

    c

  • calendar time
  • calendar time and broken-down time
  • calling variadic functions
  • canonical input processing
  • capacity limits, POSIX
  • carrier detect
  • case conversion of characters
  • catching signals
  • categories for locales
  • change working directory
  • changing the locale
  • changing the size of a block (malloc)
  • changing the size of a block (obstacks)
  • channels
  • character case conversion
  • character code
  • character predicates
  • character testing
  • checking for pending signals
  • child process
  • child process signal
  • chunks
  • classification of characters
  • cleaning up a stream
  • clearing terminal input queue
  • client
  • clock ticks
  • close-on-exec (file descriptor flag)
  • closing a file descriptor
  • closing a socket
  • closing a stream
  • code, character
  • collating strings
  • combining locales
  • command argument syntax
  • command arguments, parsing
  • command line arguments
  • command substitution
  • communication style (of a socket)
  • comparing strings and arrays
  • Comparison Function
  • concatenating strings
  • connecting a socket
  • connection
  • consistency checking
  • consistency checking, of heap
  • continue signal
  • control character
  • control operations on files
  • controlling process
  • controlling terminal
  • controlling terminal, access to
  • controlling terminal, determining
  • conversion specifications (printf)
  • conversion specifications (scanf)
  • converting byte order
  • converting case of characters
  • converting extended characters
  • converting extended strings
  • converting file descriptor to stream
  • converting floats to integers
  • converting group ID to group name
  • converting group name to group ID
  • converting host address to name
  • converting host name to address
  • converting network name to network number
  • converting network number to network name
  • converting port number to service name
  • converting service name to port number
  • converting string to collation order
  • converting strings to numbers
  • converting user ID to user name
  • converting user name to user ID
  • cookie, for custom stream
  • copying strings and arrays
  • CPU time
  • create on open (file status flag)
  • creating a directory
  • creating a FIFO special file
  • creating a pipe
  • creating a pipe to a subprocess
  • creating a process
  • creating a socket
  • creating a socket pair
  • creating special files
  • cube root function
  • currency symbols
  • current working directory
  • custom streams
  • customizing printf

    d

  • data loss on sockets
  • datagram socket
  • datagrams, transmitting
  • date and time
  • Daylight Saving Time
  • decimal digit character
  • decimal-point separator
  • declaration (compared to definition)
  • declaring variadic functions
  • default action (for a signal)
  • default action for a signal
  • default argument promotions
  • defining new printf conversions
  • definition (compared to declaration)
  • delayed suspend character
  • deleting a directory
  • deleting a file
  • delivery of signals
  • descriptors and streams
  • digit character
  • directories, accessing
  • directories, creating
  • directories, deleting
  • directory
  • directory entry
  • directory stream
  • disadvantages of alloca
  • DISCARD character
  • domain (of socket)
  • domain error
  • dot notation, for Internet addresses
  • DSUSP character
  • duplicating file descriptors
  • dynamic allocation

    e

  • echo of terminal input
  • effective group ID
  • effective user ID
  • efficiency and malloc
  • efficiency and obstacks
  • efficiency of chunks
  • end of file, on a stream
  • end-of-file, on a file descriptor
  • environment
  • environment access
  • environment representation
  • environment variable
  • EOF character
  • EOL character
  • EOL2 character
  • epoch
  • ERASE character
  • error codes
  • error reporting
  • establishing a handler
  • exception
  • exclusive lock
  • exec functions
  • executing a file
  • exit status
  • exit status value
  • expansion of shell words
  • exponent (of floating point number)
  • exponentiation functions
  • extended character sets
  • extended characters, converting
  • extended strings, converting representations
  • extending printf
  • extracting file descriptor from stream

    f

  • fcntl function
  • feature test macros
  • field splitting
  • FIFO special file
  • file access permission
  • file access time
  • file attribute modification time
  • file attributes
  • file creation mask
  • file descriptor flags
  • file descriptor sets, for select
  • file descriptors, standard
  • file locks
  • file modification time
  • file name
  • file name component
  • file name resolution
  • file name syntax errors
  • file names, multiple
  • file namespace, for sockets
  • file owner
  • file permission bits
  • file pointer
  • file position
  • file positioning on a file descriptor
  • file positioning on a stream
  • file status flags
  • filtering i/o through subprocess
  • flag character (printf)
  • flag character (scanf)
  • flags for sigaction
  • floating point, IEEE
  • floating type measurements
  • floating-point exception
  • flow control, terminal
  • flushing a stream
  • flushing terminal output queue
  • foreground job
  • foreground job, launching
  • forking a process
  • format string, for printf
  • format string, for scanf
  • formatted input from a stream
  • formatted output to a stream
  • freeing (obstacks)
  • freeing memory allocated with malloc
  • fully buffered stream
  • function prototypes (variadic)

    g

  • generation of signals
  • globbing
  • graphic character
  • Gregorian calendar
  • group database
  • group ID
  • group name
  • group owner of a file
  • grouping of digits
  • growing objects (in obstacks)

    h

  • handle
  • handling multiple signals
  • hangup signal
  • hard link
  • header files
  • heap consistency checking
  • heap, dynamic allocation from
  • heap, freeing memory from
  • hexadecimal digit character
  • hidden bit (of floating point number mantissa)
  • high-priority data
  • high-resolution time
  • home directory
  • HOME environment variable
  • hook functions (of custom streams)
  • host address, Internet
  • hosts database
  • how many arguments
  • hyperbolic functions

    i

  • identifying terminals
  • IEEE floating point
  • IEEE floating point representation
  • IEEE Std 1003.1
  • IEEE Std 1003.2
  • ignore action for a signal
  • illegal instruction
  • impossible events
  • independent channels
  • initial signal actions
  • inode number
  • input available signal
  • input conversions, for scanf
  • input from multiple files
  • installing the library
  • integer division functions
  • integer type range
  • integer type width
  • interactive signals, from terminal
  • interactive stop signal
  • internationalization
  • Internet host address
  • Internet namespace, for sockets
  • interprocess communication, with FIFO
  • interprocess communication, with pipes
  • interprocess communication, with signals
  • interprocess communication, with sockets
  • interrupt character
  • interrupt signal
  • interrupt-driven input
  • interval timer, setting
  • INTR character
  • inverse hyperbolic functions
  • inverse trigonmetric functions

    j

  • job
  • job control
  • job control functions
  • job control is optional
  • job control signals
  • job control, enabling

    k

  • Kermit the frog
  • KILL character
  • kill signal
  • killing a process

    l

  • LANG environment variable
  • launching jobs
  • LC_COLLATE environment variable
  • LC_CTYPE environment variable
  • LC_MONETARY environment variable
  • LC_NUMERIC environment variable
  • LC_TIME environment variable
  • leap second
  • length of multibyte character
  • length of string
  • level, for socket options
  • library
  • limits on resource usage
  • limits, file name length
  • limits, floating types
  • limits, integer types
  • limits, link count of files
  • limits, number of open files
  • limits, number of processes
  • limits, number of supplementary group IDs
  • limits, pipe buffer size
  • limits, POSIX
  • limits, program argument size
  • limits, terminal input queue
  • limits, time zone name length
  • line buffered stream
  • line speed
  • lines (in a text file)
  • link
  • link, hard
  • link, soft
  • link, symbolic
  • linked channels
  • listening (sockets)
  • little-endian
  • LNEXT character
  • local network address number
  • local time
  • locale categories
  • locale, changing
  • locales
  • logarithm functions
  • login name
  • login name, determining
  • LOGNAME environment variable
  • long jumps
  • long-named options
  • longjmp
  • loss of data on sockets
  • lower-case character

    m

  • macros
  • main function
  • malloc function
  • mantissa (of floating point number)
  • matching failure, in scanf
  • maximum field width (scanf)
  • measurements of floating types
  • memory allocation
  • memory usage warnings
  • merging of signals
  • MIN termios slot
  • minimum field width (printf)
  • mixing descriptors and streams
  • modem disconnect
  • modem status lines
  • monetary value formatting
  • multibyte character, length of
  • multibyte characters
  • multiple names for one file
  • multiplexing input

    n

  • name of running program
  • name of socket
  • name space
  • names of signals
  • namespace (of socket)
  • NaN
  • network byte order
  • network number
  • network protocol
  • networks database
  • non-blocking mode (file status flag)
  • non-local exit, from signal handler
  • non-local exits
  • noncanonical input processing
  • normalization functions (floating-point)
  • normalized floating point number
  • not a number
  • null character
  • null pointer constant
  • number of arguments passed
  • number syntax, parsing
  • numeric value formatting

    o

  • obstack status
  • obstacks
  • opening a file
  • opening a file descriptor
  • opening a pipe
  • opening a socket
  • opening a socket pair
  • opening a stream
  • optional arguments
  • optional POSIX features
  • orphaned process group
  • out-of-band data
  • output conversions, for printf
  • output possible signal
  • owner of a file

    p

  • packet
  • page boundary
  • parent directory
  • parent process
  • parity checking
  • parsing a template string
  • parsing numbers (in formatted input)
  • parsing program arguments
  • parsing tokens from a string
  • password database
  • PATH environment variable
  • pause function
  • peeking at input
  • pending signals
  • pending signals, checking for
  • permission to access a file
  • persona
  • pi (trigonometric constant)
  • pipe
  • pipe signal
  • pipe to a subprocess
  • port number
  • positioning a file descriptor
  • positioning a stream
  • POSIX
  • POSIX capacity limits
  • POSIX optional features
  • POSIX.1
  • POSIX.2
  • power functions
  • precision (of floating point number)
  • precision (printf)
  • predicates on arrays
  • predicates on characters
  • predicates on strings
  • printing character
  • priority of a process
  • process
  • process completion
  • process group functions
  • process group ID
  • process group leader
  • process groups
  • process ID
  • process image
  • process lifetime
  • process priority
  • process signal mask
  • process termination
  • processor time
  • profiling alarm signal
  • profiling timer
  • program argument syntax
  • program arguments
  • program arguments, parsing
  • program error signals
  • program name
  • program termination
  • program termination signals
  • programming your own streams
  • protocol (of socket)
  • protocol family
  • protocols database
  • prototypes for variadic functions
  • pseudo-random numbers
  • punctuation character
  • pushing input back

    q

  • quick sort function (for arrays)
  • QUIT character
  • quit signal
  • quote removal

    r

  • race conditions, relating to job control
  • race conditions, relating to signals
  • radix (of floating point number)
  • raising signals
  • random numbers
  • random-access files
  • range error
  • range of integer type
  • read lock
  • reading from a directory
  • reading from a file descriptor
  • reading from a socket
  • reading from a stream, by blocks
  • reading from a stream, by characters
  • reading from a stream, formatted
  • real group ID
  • real user ID
  • real-time timer
  • receiving datagrams
  • record locking
  • redirecting input and output
  • reentrant functions
  • relative file name
  • relocating memory allocator
  • remainder functions
  • removal of quotes
  • removing a file
  • removing macros that shadow functions
  • renaming a file
  • reporting bugs
  • reporting errors
  • REPRINT character
  • reserved names
  • resource limits
  • restrictions on signal handler functions
  • root directory
  • rounding functions
  • running a command

    s

  • scanning the group list
  • scanning the user list
  • search function (for arrays)
  • search functions (for strings)
  • seed (for random numbers)
  • seeking on a file descriptor
  • seeking on a stream
  • segmentation violation
  • sending a datagram
  • sending signals
  • sequential-access files
  • server
  • services database
  • session
  • session leader
  • setting an alarm
  • setuid programs
  • setuid programs and file access
  • shadowing functions with macros
  • shared lock
  • shell
  • shrinking objects
  • shutting down a socket
  • sigaction flags
  • sigaction function
  • SIGCHLD, handling of
  • sign (of floating point number)
  • signal
  • signal action
  • signal actions
  • signal flags
  • signal function
  • signal handler function
  • signal mask
  • signal messages
  • signal names
  • signal number
  • signal set
  • signal stack
  • signals, generating
  • significand (of floating point number)
  • SIGTTIN, from background job
  • SIGTTOU, from background job
  • size of string
  • socket
  • socket address (name) binding
  • socket domain
  • socket namespace
  • socket option level
  • socket options
  • socket pair
  • socket protocol
  • socket shutdown
  • socket, client actions
  • socket, closing
  • socket, connecting
  • socket, creating
  • socket, initiating a connection
  • sockets, accepting connections
  • sockets, listening
  • sockets, server actions
  • soft link
  • sort function (for arrays)
  • special files
  • specified action (for a signal)
  • square root function
  • stable sorting
  • standard dot notation, for Internet addresses
  • standard environment variables
  • standard error file descriptor
  • standard error stream
  • standard file descriptors
  • standard input file descriptor
  • standard input stream
  • standard output file descriptor
  • standard output stream
  • standard streams
  • standards
  • START character
  • static allocation
  • STATUS character
  • status codes
  • status of a file
  • status of obstack
  • sticky bit
  • STOP character
  • stop signal
  • stopped job
  • stopped jobs, continuing
  • stopped jobs, detecting
  • storage allocation
  • stream (sockets)
  • stream, for I/O to a string
  • streams and descriptors
  • streams, and file descriptors
  • streams, standard
  • string
  • string allocation
  • string collation functions
  • string comparison functions
  • string concatenation functions
  • string copy functions
  • string length
  • string literal
  • string search functions
  • string stream
  • string, representation of
  • style of communication (of a socket)
  • subshell
  • substitution of variables and commands
  • successive signals
  • summer time
  • SunOS
  • supplementary group IDs
  • SUSP character
  • suspend character
  • SVID
  • symbolic link
  • syntax, for program arguments
  • syntax, for reading numbers
  • System V Unix

    t

  • TCP (Internet protocol)
  • template, for printf
  • template, for scanf
  • TERM environment variable
  • terminal flow control
  • terminal identification
  • terminal input queue
  • terminal input queue, clearing
  • terminal input signal
  • terminal line control functions
  • terminal line speed
  • terminal mode data types
  • terminal mode functions
  • terminal output queue
  • terminal output queue, flushing
  • terminal output signal
  • terminated jobs, detecting
  • termination signal
  • testing access permission
  • testing exit status of child process
  • text stream
  • ticks, clock
  • tilde expansion
  • TIME termios slot
  • time zone
  • time, calendar
  • time, elapsed CPU
  • timers, setting
  • timing error in signal handling
  • TMPDIR environment variable
  • tokenizing strings
  • transmitting datagrams
  • trigonometric functions
  • type measurements, floating
  • type measurements, integer
  • type modifier character (printf)
  • type modifier character (scanf)
  • typeahead buffer
  • TZ environment variable

    u

  • umask
  • unbuffered stream
  • unconstrained storage allocation
  • undefining macros that shadow functions
  • Unix, Berkeley
  • Unix, System V
  • unlinking a file
  • unreading characters
  • upper-case character
  • urgent data signal
  • urgent socket condition
  • usage limits
  • user database
  • user ID
  • user ID, determining
  • user name
  • user signals
  • usual file name syntax errors

    v

  • variable number of arguments
  • variable substitution
  • variable-sized arrays
  • variadic function argument access
  • variadic function prototypes
  • variadic functions
  • variadic functions, calling
  • virtual time alarm signal
  • virtual timer
  • volatile declarations

    w

  • waiting for a signal
  • waiting for completion of child process
  • waiting for input or output
  • warnings of memory almost full
  • WERASE character
  • whitespace character
  • wide characters
  • width of integer type
  • wildcard expansion
  • word expansion
  • working directory
  • write lock
  • writing to a file descriptor
  • writing to a socket
  • writing to a stream, by blocks
  • writing to a stream, by characters
  • writing to a stream, formatted
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