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Simple Output by Characters or Lines

This section describes functions for performing character- and line-oriented output.

These functions are declared in the header file `stdio.h'.

Function: int fputc (int c, FILE *stream)

The fputc function converts the character c to type unsigned char, and writes it to the stream stream. EOF is returned if a write error occurs; otherwise the character c is returned.

Function: int putc (int c, FILE *stream)

This is just like fputc, except that most systems implement it as a macro, making it faster. One consequence is that it may evaluate the stream argument more than once. putc is usually the best function to use for writing a single character.

Function: int putchar (int c)

The putchar function is equivalent to putc with stdout as the value of the stream argument.

Function: int fputs (const char *s, FILE *stream)

The function fputs writes the string s to the stream stream. The terminating null character is not written. This function does not add a newline character, either. It outputs only the chars in the string.

This function returns EOF if a write error occurs, and otherwise a non-negative value.

For example:

fputs ("Are ", stdout);
fputs ("you ", stdout);
fputs ("hungry?\n", stdout);

outputs the text `Are you hungry?' followed by a newline.

Function: int puts (const char *s)

The puts function writes the string s to the stream stdout followed by a newline. The terminating null character of the string is not written.

puts is the most convenient function for printing simple messages. For example:

puts ("This is a message.");

Function: int putw (int w, FILE *stream)

This function writes the word w (that is, an int) to stream. It is provided for compatibility with SVID, but we recommend you use fwrite instead (see section Block Input/Output).

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