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### Integer Conversions

This section describes the options for the `%d', `%i', `%o', `%u', `%x', `%X', and `%Z' conversion specifications. These conversions print integers in various formats.

The `%d' and `%i' conversion specifications both print an `int` argument as a signed decimal number; while `%o', `%u', and `%x' print the argument as an unsigned octal, decimal, or hexadecimal number (respectively). The `%X' conversion specification is just like `%x' except that it uses the characters `ABCDEF' as digits instead of `abcdef'. `%Z' is like `%u' but expects an argument of type `size_t`.

The following flags are meaningful:

`-'
Left-justify the result in the field (instead of the normal right-justification).

`+'
For the signed `%d' and `%i' conversions, print a plus sign if the value is positive.

` '
For the signed `%d' and `%i' conversions, if the result doesn't start with a plus or minus sign, prefix it with a space character instead. Since the `+' flag ensures that the result includes a sign, this flag is ignored if you supply both of them.

`#'
For the `%o' conversion, this forces the leading digit to be `0', as if by increasing the precision. For `%x' or `%X', this prefixes a leading `0x' or `0X' (respectively) to the result. This doesn't do anything useful for the `%d', `%i', or `%u' conversions. Using this flag produces output which can be parsed by the `strtoul` function (see section Parsing of Integers) and `scanf` with the `%i' conversion (see section Numeric Input Conversions).

`0'
Pad the field with zeros instead of spaces. The zeros are placed after any indication of sign or base. This flag is ignored if the `-' flag is also specified, or if a precision is specified.

If a precision is supplied, it specifies the minimum number of digits to appear; leading zeros are produced if necessary. If you don't specify a precision, the number is printed with as many digits as it needs. If you convert a value of zero with an explicit precision of zero, then no characters at all are produced.

Without a type modifier, the corresponding argument is treated as an `int` (for the signed conversions `%i' and `%d') or `unsigned int` (for the unsigned conversions `%o', `%u', `%x', and `%X'). Recall that since `printf` and friends are variadic, any `char` and `short` arguments are automatically converted to `int` by the default argument promotions. For arguments of other integer types, you can use these modifiers:

`h'
Specifies that the argument is a `short int` or ```unsigned short int```, as appropriate. A `short` argument is converted to an `int` or `unsigned int` by the default argument promotions anyway, but the `h' modifier says to convert it back to a `short` again.

`l'
Specifies that the argument is a `long int` or ```unsigned long int```, as appropriate.

`L'
Specifies that the argument is a `long long int`. (This type is an extension supported by the GNU C compiler. On systems that don't support extra-long integers, this is the same as `long int`.)

The modifiers for argument type are not applicable to `%Z', since the sole purpose of `%Z' is to specify the data type `size_t`.

Here is an example. Using the template string:

```"|%5d|%-5d|%+5d|%+-5d|% 5d|%05d|%5.0d|%5.2d|%d|\n"
```

to print numbers using the different options for the `%d' conversion gives results like:

```|    0|0    |   +0|+0   |    0|00000|     |   00|0|
|    1|1    |   +1|+1   |    1|00001|    1|   01|1|
|   -1|-1   |   -1|-1   |   -1|-0001|   -1|  -01|-1|
|100000|100000|+100000| 100000|100000|100000|100000|100000|
```

In particular, notice what happens in the last case where the number is too large to fit in the minimum field width specified.

Here are some more examples showing how unsigned integers print under various format options, using the template string:

```"|%5u|%5o|%5x|%5X|%#5o|%#5x|%#5X|%#10.8x|\n"
```

```|    0|    0|    0|    0|    0|  0x0|  0X0|0x00000000|
|    1|    1|    1|    1|   01|  0x1|  0X1|0x00000001|
|100000|303240|186a0|186A0|0303240|0x186a0|0X186A0|0x000186a0|
```

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